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Minggu, 15 April 2012

CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING


ABSTRACT

This study is itended to analyze the linguistic signals of power and solidarity in the javanese language at kalikejambon village Jombang.The javanese language has many style levels which each reflects existence of power and solidarity in the society. The Javanese people have to dertermine the style levels that is appropriate to be used because every situation requires the speaker to make the most exactling discriminations about his attitude toward the listener’s states. She have to choose  one of the three basic stylesof the language and decide wheter or not he will employ special terms known as honorifics.
The main problem described and identified in this thesis is the linguistic signals of power and solidarity in javanese language at kalikejambon village Jombang and the social contexts that determine the execution of power and solidaruty in javanese society.
The descriptive qualitative method is used ro conduct this research. The javanese people that include a teacher. Student of javanese department trader and farmer are taken as the informants. The observation and interview is done to obtain the data futher, the data are recordered on the tape and jetted down on the  notes.
In doing the analys is the writer divides the data into three part i.e the address system in javanese language as linguistic signals of power and solidarity,after that the second contexts that determine theexecution of power and solidaruty will be analyzed.
The study revals that the linguistic signals of power and solidaruty in the javanese language include the address system, verb form and vocabulary levels. Its execution in the sociely depends on some factors i.e participant (s) and familiarity have the most important role. However the situation in which the dialoque take place and the topic of conversation also determine the choice of the style levels they used communication.



















Undangan                                                   Kepada Yth :
                                                                                    Bapak / Ibu / Sdr 
                                                                                                ______________                                                                   
                                                                                                ______________

Menikah



            JUMAROH                dengan                  U L U L
          Tembelang                                                     Tembelang

Assalamu’alaikum Wr Wb.

Dengan memohon Ridho dan Rahmat Allah SWT. Kami mengharap kehadiran serta do’a restu Bapak/ Ibu/ Saudara/i pada acara Walimatul Ursy pernikahan anak kami yang insya Allah diselenggarakan pada:

Hari                 : Jumat
Tanggal           : 2 Juli 2004
Jam                  : 08.00 WIB
Tempat            : Dsn. Kalak, Ds. Kalikejambon
                          Tembelang, Jombang.

Merupakan suatu kehormatan dan kebahagiaan bagi kami apabila Bpk / Ibu / Saudara / I berkenan hadir dan memberi do’a restu.
Atas kehadiran dan do’a restu Bpk / Ibu / Saudara / i kami ucapkan terima kasih.

Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb.
                                                                                    Hormat kami
                       
                                                       
CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING





 












ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF

MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY SURABAYA
2004



EDUCATIONAL ATITUDE


Student life at American Universities usually in total confusion during the first semester. International students, accustomed to their countries educational expectations, must adapt to new classroom norms in a foreign college or university.

Active participation
In the classroom, student’s participation is expected in many courses. Some professors base part of the final grade on the student’s  oral participation. Although the student have passive role (listening and taking notes) in formal lectures, but in informal lectures, many courses are designed around classroom discussion. Many professors encourage students to question and challenge their ideas.

The Teacher- Student Relationship
It is uncommon for students to have easygoing and friendly relationship with their professors. Although students may be in a subordinate position some professors tread them as equals. However, they still are in a authority position. Professors may establish social relationships with students outside of the classroom but in the classroom they maintain the instructor’s role. Students must realize that when a teacher’s role changes, they must appropriately adapt with their behavior and attitudes.
          Many teachers believe that the responsibility for learning lies with the students. Sometimes homework is returned with brief written comments without a grade. Even if a grade is not given, the student is responsible for learning the material. Professors will help students who need it but prefer that their students not be overly dependent on them.

The Honor System.
          The “honor system” imposed by the teacher and university demands that the student be honest in all areas of school work. Violation of the honor system can result in a student’s failing a course, having a permanent record of the violation placed in the student’s school file or even being expelled from the university.

Competition.
          Relationship between students in the classroom can be cooperative or competitive. International students should not hesitate to ask for help if it is needed. In addition when facing a competitive job market, graduates may be judged on the basis of their grade point average and faculty recommendations. Ultimately, it is the student who is responsible for succeeding in this competitive system.




WORK VALUES

Work is one of the most important activities in an individual’s life. The primary motivation to work is to get a living. In addition, what a person “does” helps to determine that person’s prestige. A lawyer has more prestige than a bus driver, a nurse can claim more prestige than a waitress or a waiter.

The “Work Ethic
          The “work ethic” imbues work with the quality of goodness. It originated with the puritan colonists from England, who come to North America in the 1600’s. The ethic was an outcome of the religious belief that material success was a sign of God’s favor and that those who achieved this success were among God’s “chosen” and would go to heaven.

The “ American Dream”
          Many people believe  that there is equality of opportunity that allows anyone to become successful. This belief is illustrated by stories written by a nineteenth century American novelist, Horatilo Alger, who wrote about the “ American Dream”. He described poor people who become rich because of their hard work, honesty, and luckl..

Rewards and Job Satisfaction.
          There are some people however who do succeed in raising their economic, and social levels. Upward (occupation) mobility or climbing the ladder are terms that refer to one’s advancement in work.

Workaholics
          The word “workaholic” describes an individual who is as addicted to work as an alcoholic is to liquor. There are conflicting points of view about workaholics those concerned with problems of mental stress believe workaholics are valuable members of society because they are extremely productive.

Leisure and Socializing
          Leisure time provides opportunities to find personal satisfaction and freedom from the routine of work. Increased leisure time in the United States has not altered the idea that work and play are distinct activities. In many offices, stores, and factories socializing among employees is discouraged. An employee under pressure at work often can not afford to respond to social calls and visits. There are may be more social interactions between teachers in a school than between  scientist doing independent research.         
   

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