1.1. Background of the Study
One of the people’s need to live in society is to communicate with the other. To communicate one use language, so it is true that language is a social organization. In this case the writer is supported by Ramelan (1996:1) who says that man speaks a language which is as a tool to express his ideas and wishes. Talking about communication, Chaer (1995:22) states that communication is a process by which is exchange between individuals through a commom system of symbols, signs, behaviors. While Lazarus (1964:5) writing it is a concept whose scope of application is rather flexible.
In communication bilingualism is more widespread. Bilingualism is popularly the ability to speak two language equally or almost equally well, it is used technically to refer to any degree of knowledge of two languages by the same person (Lado in Alwasilah, 1985:124). According to T.Bell the definition of a bilingual is one who has perfect a control over more than one language (1976:129). Bilingualism is very common in Indonesia especially in the industrial city. Changes in sociocultural may bring the changes in language pattern (Rohmah, 1999:1). Language changes over time to follow the development of area.
The existency of interference, code switching and language shift in bilingualism is caused by the reality as stated by Robin (1980:11) :
Languages are adaptable and modifiable according ro the changing needs and conditions of speakers ; this is immediately seen in the adaption of the vocabulary of English and of other languages to the scientific and industrial developments, and the concomitant changes in people’s live.
For this Chaer (1995:3) says dimensi kemasyarakatan bukan hanya memberi makna kepada bahasa , tetapi juga menyebabkan terjadinya ragam-ragam bahasa. This means the social demension does not only give meaning to the language but also causes the occurrence of language variation. An ethnic language can change to a dominant lamguage and after thet language shift will occur in the younger generation.
Chaer (1995:187) states that pergeseran bahasa ( language shift ) menyangkut masalah pengunaan bahasa oleh seorang penutur atau sekelompok penutur yang bisa terjadi sebagai akibat perpindahan dari satu masyarakat tutur ke masyarakat tutur lain. This means that language shift relates to the language use problem by a speaker or a group that happen as the result of a change from a speech community to the other. Alwasilah (1985:133) says bila satu kelompok baru datang ke tempat lain dan bercampur dengan kelompok setempat, maka akan terjadilah pergeseran bahasa ( langage shift ). It means if a speaker or a speech community move to another place that use another language and interact with them, language shift will be happen. Hartman in Alwasilah (1985:42) says that a speech community is a group of people usually in the same area, speaking the variant of a language, or the same standard language.
Language shift usually occur in the state, area or region that are give the wishes for better economic social life. In this case the place is Tulungagung that nowadays there are so many modern Javanese parents, towards Javanese language by putting Indonesian as daily language at home and ignoring Javanese language which should be thought to language eventually. The urban, one who has moved to the city from country (Bintaro, 1983:15) will forget a part of their language and ( be forced to ) gain the local language. Chaer (1995:188) confirmed that :
Dalam kelompok asal, mereka memang dapat menggunakan bahasa pertama mereka; tetapi untuk berkomunikasi dengan orang lain, tentunya mereka tidak dapat bertahan untuk tetap menggunakan bahasa sendiri. Sedikit demi sedikit mereka harus belajar menggunakan bahasa penduduk setempat.
This means in their origin group, they are still can use their first language but to communicate with another of course they are can’t maintain their own language. Little by little they are have to use the local inhabitant’s language.
The reason why the writer is interested in language shift is because of the writer’s experiences. She observes that nowadays many young urban shift the Javanese language into Indonesian and only some of them still maintain Javanese language. In this study, the researcher wants to observe language shift used by the young urban at Beji village, Tulungagung.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
From the background above, the statements of the problems are as follows :
1. What forms of language shift are identified in Beji, Tulungagung?
2. What social contexts are responsible for the use of language shift in Beji, Tulungagung ?
3. What particular reasons are responsible for the use of the language shift in Beji, Tulungagung ?
1.3. Purpose of the Study
Concerning to the problems above, the purposes of the study are :
1. To identify the forms of language shift that is used by young urban in Beji, Tulungagung.
2. To describe the social contexts which are responsible for the use of language shift in Beji, Tulungagung.
3. To find out the particular reasons which are responsible for the use of language shift in Beji, Tulungagung
1.4. Significance of the Study
The study is expected to give a meaningful contribution to enrich our understanding about sociolinguistic in general and to the study of language shift in particular. She believes that understanding in language shift is very important. The writer also hopes that this study will be able to give information to the readers, especially to the students of sociolinguistic at English Department who intend to make further studies in this field
For the field of sociolinguistics, the result will be beneficial for the growth of sociolinguistics in Indonesia.
1.5. Scope and Limitation of The Study
This study will see the language shift in Beji, Tulungagung. It is because Tulungagung is one of big cities in East Java. The spread of Indonesian comes throughout the city and into all levels and sectors of society through education, economy, government, their informal situation ( daily talk ) and so on.
The limitation of the study is only in the young urbans who live in Beji, Tulungagung. The reasons for this limitation are because there are many possibilities that language shift exist in the young urban who live in a big city.
1.6. Definition of Key Terms
Language Shift : Menyangkut masalah penggunaan bahasa oleh seorang penutur atau sekelompok penutur yang bisa terjadi sebagai akibat perpindahan dari satu masyarakat tutur ke masyarakat tutur lain (Chaer, 1995:187). This means the language shift relates to the language use problem by a speaker or a group that happen as the result of a change from a speech community to the other.
Bila satu kelompok baru datang ke tempat lain dan bercampur dengan kelompok setempat (Alwasilah, 1985:133). This means if a speaker or a speech community moved to another place and interact with inhabitants.
Urban : One who has moved to the city from the country (Bintaro, 1983:15).
LANGUAGE SHIFT USED BY THE YOUNG URBANS OF BEJI VILLAGE, TULUNGAGUNG